How the Sports Betting Line is Made by RJ Bell

Obviously, if the line comes out a week ahead of the event (which is the case in football), there is much that could happen during the week leading up to the event that could affect the line. For example, the public might have heavy betting interest week after week on a popular college football team such as USC. Seba explained that it all starts with each oddsmaker creating a line on each game based upon their own personal approach. If we’ve done that, we’ve done our job.”

A round-table discussion among the 4-5 oddsmakers involved in making the line for each sport is then conducted and a consensus line is decided upon by the Odds Director before it is released to the sportsbooks. Examples of non-game factors that would require an adjustment to a team’s power rating are key player injuries and player trades. Also, adjustments are made after reading each team’s local newspapers to get a sense of what the coaches & players are thinking going into the game. Each of these oddsmakers bring unique opinions, strengths and weaknesses to the process.

How the Opening Line Is Made

“The #1 thing for us is to make a line for each game that creates good two-way action. Of the 4-5 oddsmakers, generally the 2 most respected opinions are weighed more heavily by the Odds Director before he decides on the final line. Oddsmakers have to determine if any changes are necessary and send out an “adjusted line.”

“You either have a passion for it or you don’t,” Seba said.

Once betting begins, sportsbooks can adjust the line at any time. .

Moving the line is the oddsmaker’s effort to balance betting action, and often times such moves can have a major impact on a bettor’s decision. That is not the case at all – their intent is NOT to evenly split the ATS result between the teams; rather, their goal is to attract equal betting action on both sides. In doing so they attempt to make more attractive the team that is getting less action.

Once the opening line is released by LVSC, the individual sportsbooks decide if they want to make any adjustments before offering it to the public. This usually includes having up-to-date power ratings on each team.

What Is the Line Trying to Accomplish?

Oddsmakers can also change the line depending on various event-related factors such as player injuries or weather.

“The main objective is that our clients get equal action on both sides,” Seba said. By moving the line, sportsbooks can influence how the public bets on a particular game. Reasons for such adjustments include:

Individual books having players who consistently bet with certain tendencies (such as an extreme bias toward favorites or toward a certain popular team like USC)

Las Vegas Sports Consultants (LVSC) is the world’s premier oddsmaking company and the most respected authority on making the lines. “We’re not trying to pick the team that covers the spread, we’re trying to make it a coin flip, a tough decision (for the bettor).

There is a common misconception that point spreads represent the oddsmakers’ prediction of how many points the favorite will win by. If an oddsmaker comes up with a preliminary line of USC -7, then an adjustment up to -7.5 or -8 would be made in response to the public’s expected USC bias.

Oddsmakers at LVSC are professional sports junkies who love what they do and would probably do it for nothing if you asked them, but they do get paid for it. By necessity their approach is very research-oriented and concise, since with millions of dollars at risk there is little margin for error. We do this by drawing from past experiences and applying them to current situations. Of course there is an entire method to the madness on how the opening line is created. Power ratings are the oddsmaker’s value of each team and are used as a guide to calculate a “preliminary” pointspread on an upcoming game. The power ratings are adjusted after each game a team plays.

For example, if the pointspread on a game is 7 and most of the money is coming in on the underdog (taking the +7), sportsbooks will then move the number down to 6 ½ to try and attract money on the favorite. In our extended interview, Seba explained that there are 4-5 oddsmakers assigned to make lines for each of the major sports (pro & college football and basketball; MLB, NHL, boxing, golf).

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

The purpose of these adjustments, like all line adjustments, is to more equally divide the betting action.

The last step in the line-making process for each oddsmaker is taking one final look to determine whether or not the line “feels right.” This is where common sense and past experience with how games are bet enters into the picture.

The opening line is the first line created by the oddsmakers, which is then sent out to sportsbooks. Stated another way, they want to create a line that half the people find appealing to bet one way while the other half find it appealing to bet the other way (known as ‘dividing the action’). Mike Seba is a Senior Oddsmaker at LVSC and has been making lines for the last six years. People think it’s much more complicated, but it’s not.”

Once a game’s power rating based pointspread is determined, the oddsmaker will make adjustments to that line after considering each team’s most recent games played and previous games played against that opponent.

Divided action means the sportsbook is guaranteed a profit on the game because of the fee charged to the bettor (called juice or vig – typically $11 bet to win $10).

Why the Line Changes

Experts working for the individual books having a strong opinion on the game

Contributed by:

Since the oddsmaker’s ultimate goal is equally dividing the betting action, public perception and betting patterns must be taken into account

A Beginners Guide To Betting On Greyhound Racing

Online betting sites with “racebooks” set the greyhound racing betting odds.

The odds are available through the race and are created by the sports books. These odds are going to determine the likelihood of a certain dog coming in a certain place through the race.

Using these two factors, greyhound racing betting sites will determine the prize that is going to be awarded. Many online racebooks allow the bettor to take part in betting practices without actually being in the local area, as they can showcase the matches online with the use of the streaming video that can be presented to clients, allowing the clients to watch the races that are being bet on, with ease.

Using the odds and learning about the dogs and the specifics of the sport can be a great way to get into greyhound racing betting online.

As one of the most popular types of animal racing in the world, greyhound racing betting has many different types of bets that can be made with many different types of outcomes. There are often multiple dogs that are involved in the race and the bets are made on the position that the dogs are going to arrive over the finish line. It is important to realize that the odds given for the race are accurate and the odds makers have years of experience in determining the results of the race and therefore the odds should be considered accordingly.

How can you determine what the prize will be once the bet has been made? The prize that will be given to the successful bettor depends on two factors; the amount that has been bet and the odds that are placed on the bet that has been made.

Choosing between the many greyhound racing websites that are available is simple, when the reputation of the website is compared with the races and the bets that can be made.

. Many times, these prizes are outlined with the bet that is being made, allowing even beginners to determine the potential prize that is available with the bet that has been made.

The important odds to consider are the first, second and third for most bets that are being made

10 Websites and Games Like Club Penguin (Virtual Worlds)

If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.

There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents.

While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).

If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource.

This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love..

I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe

PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson

Sergio’s last win anywhere was at the 2015 Ho Tram Open on the Asian Tour on December 6, 2015.

Brooks Koepka is interesting this week. Matt Kuchar – 18 to 1

T-6. He missed the cut last week at the Players. Sergio Garcia – 20 to 1

1. He was likely rusty last week and should play much better this week. The 26 year old has three top 10 finishes in 2016. Zach Johnson – 25 to 1

Ernie Els won the Byron Nelson back in 1995. He missed the cut at the Players last week and he should play better this week but he only has the four wins in 295 career starts which makes him a tough bet for the win.

Brendon Todd won the Byron Nelson in 2014 for his only PGA Tour win to date. Brandt Snedeker has 8 wins in 256 starts including winning the 2016 Farmers Open on February 1st. Ryan Palmer tied for 4th at the Texas Open and tied for 23rd last week so he’s playing well. Jordan Spieth is playing this week trying to win this tournament for the first time. He also won the Tshwane Open in February for his 9th European Tour win. He was 5th at the Arnold Palmer a few months ago but he finished tied for 54th place last week. He finished tied for 35th last week.

Tiger Woods (1997) and Jason Day (2010) have won this tournament once each. That was his first start since the Masters and he was likely rusty too. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was over two years ago.

Steven Bowditch – 250 to 1 odds

Notables

Ernie Els – 150 to 1 odds

3. Charley Hoffman – 22 to 1

9. He has one career win, which came in 2012, in 187 starts. Brendon Todd – 200 to 1 odds

5. He tied for 28th place last week.

T-10. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson.

Sergio Garcia was likely rusty at the Players where he tied for 54th place. Bryson DeChambeau, Danny Lee, Gary Woodland – 50 to 1 odds each

Marc Leishman is a great golfer but not a great winner. Sam Snead is second with three wins (1945, 1957, 1958) followed by Jack Nicklaus (1970, 1971) and Bruce Lietzke (1981, 1988) with two wins each.

4. He has three wins on tour but his last win was in 2010.

Zach Johnson has not played great since he won the 2015 British Open. Dustin Johnson has nine PGA Tour wins with his last win coming at the 2015 WGC-Cadillac 14 months ago.

At odds of 7 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite to win the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson. Ernie is 46 years old.

Steven Bowditch is the defending champion in the AT&T Byron Nelson but he’s been playing terrible lately missing the cut in his last five starts. He tied for 35th last week. Sergio had not played since the Masters. He tied for 64th place last week at the Players. Brendon Todd is 30 years old.

Good luck this week to all the PGA golfers and especially to all the bettors at the 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson!

Matt Kuchar played well last week tying for 3rd place but he is tough bet here at only 18 to 1 odds. Brandt Snedeker, Marc Leishman – 33 to 1 odds each

Keegan Bradley won the Byron Nelson in 2011. Charl Schwartzel – 25 to 1

T-6. Jimmy Walker, Jason Dufner, Ryan Palmer – 40 to 1 odds each

Charley Hoffman won the Texas Open a month ago for his 4th PGA Tour win. That was the first of his three PGA Tour wins including the 2011 PGA Championship major. Tom Watson (1975, 1978-80) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with four. The problem with Charl Schwartzel this week is he has not played since he missed the cut at the Masters.

T-12. Gary Woodland is 31 years old and he has two PGA Tour wins with his last win in 2013. Louis Oosthiuzen – 25 to 1. Vijay has 34 career wins on the PGA Tour but his last win was in 2008. Jordan Spieth – 7 to 1

Dustin Johnson tied for 28th last week at Sawgrass. For his career, Ernie Els has over 40 wins on the European and PGA Tours combined but his last win was 2013. Bradley, the nephew of LPGA great Pat Bradley, has not won on tour since 2012. Last year he finished tied for 30th in the Byron Nelson.

Bryson DeChambeau tied for 4th at the 2016 RBC Heritage in his first pro start but has missed the cut in his two tournaments since. He has one PGA Tour win and one European Tour win so far in his career.

Louis Oosthuizen’s only PGA Tour win remains the 2010 British Open. Dustin Johnson – 9 to 1

T-6. Snedeker missed the cut last week.

Vijay Singh won this tournament in 2003. He should play better this week but 25 to 1 odds are probably not enough for a bet on him to win.

Keegan Bradley – 66 to 1 odds

The 2016 AT&T Byron Nelson golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 19-22, 2016, at the TPC Four Seasons Resort located in Dallas, Texas. Jason Dufner won for the 4th time in his career in January but has not really played well enough to win since. Danny Lee is 25 and he won for the first time on tour last year at the Greenbrier. He tied for 35th last week at the Players. Koepka can hit the ball as far as anybody on tour so he’s always a threat. He has 8 PGA wins and 11 more European Tour wins. Then some notable players are also listed with much higher odds who have won this tournament in the past.

Jimmy Walker missed the cut in his last two starts including last week. Jordan Spieth missed the cut by a stoke last week at the Players which was his first tournament since the Masters. Vijay is 53 years old.

The Byron Nelson has been played annually since 1944. Louis has been playing well this year though. Will he win? Your call.

2. Woodland has missed only one cut this season in 13 tournaments but has yet to crack the top 10 in any start.

Charl Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March for his 2nd PGA Tour win. Bowditch has two wins on tour and they came one each over the last two years and both were in Texas and it’s not impossible he could turn it around this week but he’s still a tough bet.

T-15. He finished second in the WGC Match Play in March and won the Perth International on the European Tour in February. Expect him to play better this week also. Brooks Koepka – 28 to 1

Listed below with comments are all the PGA players this week with odds of 50 to 1 or less to win the 2016 Byron Nelson

Morning line betting odds for likely Kentucky Derby horses in 2016

Dale Romans trains.

Nyquist is the deserving favorite for the 2016 Kentucky Derby because he’s done nothing wrong so far in his career. My Man Sam is just 1 of 4 lifetime. Brody’s Cause came from out of the clouds to win the Blue Grass in his last start. Gun Runner and Mor Spirit – 10 to 1 odds each

Trojan Nation is still a maiden after six races. Whitmore is another closer who is 2 of 6 lifetime for Ron Moquett and he’s yet to win a stakes race. Majesto is trained by Gustavo Delgado. Kiaran McLaughlin trains. Doug O’Neill, who won the Kentucky Derby with I’l Have Another in 2012, is Nyquist’s trainer.

Danzig Candy is 3 of 5 lifetime, trained by Clifford Sise and he has speed to be a pace factor. Here is a list of the morning line betting odds for likely horses for the 2016 Kentucky Derby.. He’s just 3 of 7 lifetime and needs pace to win. Trained by Chad Brown he just ran second in the Blue Grass but he’s another closer in a race full of them.

1. The Patrick Gallagher trainee is in here because he ran second in the Wood Memorial in his last start. Keith Desormeaux is the trainer and his brother Kent rides.

T-9. The problem with Exaggerator is he’s only won four of his nine lifetime races. Exaggerator – 6 to 1

T-19.

Mohaymen went into the Florida Derby a perfect 5 for 5 but he lost as the favorite to Nyquist. Outwork just won the Wood Memorial for Todd Pletcher. Suddenbreakingnews, Mo Tom, Whitmore, Outwork – 20 to 1 odds each

Shagaf is also trained by Chad Brown. Tom’s Ready – 40 to 1

T-13. Danzig Candy, Majesto, My Man Sam, Shagaf, Lani – 30 to 1 odds each

Gun Runner and Mor Spirit are both 10 to 1 odds. Creator is just 2 of 8 lifetime but he won the Arkansas Derby in his last start from well off the pace for Steve Asmussen.

2. Mor Spirit is trained by Bob Baffert and he’s 3 of 7 lifetime including a second place finish to Exaggerator in the Santa Anita Derby in his last race.

T-7. Oscar Nominated is just 3 of 8 lifetime but he won his last two races albeit against suspect competition.

T-5. He’s 3 of 4 lifetime and he’s got speed but the race was run in very slow time.

T-3. Destin and Creator – 15 to 1 odds each

After unleashing a huge stretch run to win the Santa Anita Derby by 6 1/4 lengths, Exaggerator is the second choice in the betting odds at 6 to 1. Donnie Von Hemel trains. He is 4 for 5 lifetime. Mohayoman and Brody’s Cause – 12 to 1 odds each

18. Lani is a horse that raced in Japan until he went and won the UAE Derby in his last start. The Dallas Stewart trainee does not really have tactical speed and he’s almost surely up against it racing in the 2016 Kentucky Derby.

Destin is trained by Todd Pletcher and he’s 3 of 5 lifetime including winning his last two stakes races at Tampa Bay Downs. That has not been a successful way to win the Kentucky Derby to date.

Also listed are the records for each horse as well the trainer. In horse racing the trainer is the most important person in determining how good a thoroughbred horse will end up being on the racetrack.

Tom’s Ready is just 1 for 9 lifetime. Nyquist – 3 to 1

Suddenbreakingnews is 3 of 8 lifetime and was second to Creator in the Arkansas Derby in his last. Not exactly a great route for winning the Kentucky Derby but he does have tactical speed. In his last start Nyquist beat favorite Mohaymen easily in the Florida Derby. He’s just 1 of 6 lifetime but ran second to Nyquist in the Florida Derby in his last start. Nyquist has started seven races in his career and won all seven including winning the Breeders Cup Juvenile in 2015. He’s 3 of 4 lifetime but just finished a bad 5th in a slow Wood Memorial in his last start. Mo Tom is 3 of 7 lifetime and the closer is trained by Tom Amoss. Trojan Nation, Oscar Nominated – 50 to 1 odds each

The 2016 Kentucky Derby is taking place this week on Saturday, May 7, 2016, at Churchill Downs with a 6:24 pm EDT start time and the race is on TV on NBC. Gun Runner is trained by Steve Asmussen and he just won the Louisiana Derby but the time was slow

Horse racing: 10 fun ways to pick a horse to bet without knowing racing

Whether one attends a Triple Crown race (i.e., the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, or the Belmont Stakes), a major stakes event, or an everyday horse race, these simple horse-picking strategies can make wagering or simple cheering intriguing for those who choose to participate.

Bloodlines are big business in horse racing. However, if a long-shot racer is the victor, so much the better. Jockey silks are matched to the horses’ masks, if worn, and numbered saddle blankets. You could watch broadcasts and hear top horse racing handicappers proclaim personal picks.

5.

Betting on the horse with the highest odds may not prove prudent, but an entry with healthy odds may seize the day.

Check your ticket before you leave the betting window. Do you have favorite number? Go for it.

4. Turn it in for your winnings, or tuck it away for prosperity, if your horse fails to finish first. Give the name of the horse (or horses for a combination bet).

2. Choose your lucky number. However, horse racing is all about fun for everyone, from dyed-in-the-wool racing fans to business moguls, socialites, and celebrities. Why not be adventurous and follow your own intuition? Even top horse racing handicappers are left scratching their heads when an unexpected horse wins a big race.

This article originally appeared (in an earlier form) on another publisher’s property, which is now closed. Be sure to mention the exact race you have chosen.

7. Announce the type of bet you are making (such as to-win, win-place-show, the trifecta or another option). Just smile all the way to the betting window to collect your winnings, if you strike it big.

How can you pick a racehorse for betting or basic crowd cheering? You can read tip sheets and racing forms. Place a small bet on every horse in the field. If you don’t follow horse racing, scan the daily program for a title that tickles you, and stick with it.

1. If you have a favorite jockey, why not choose the horse he or she is riding? For Triple Crown races, in particular, plenty of horse racing fans support the mounts piloted by jockeys they prefer.

Unless you pick the high-priced wagering windows, the minimum straight bet is usually $2. With a full field of 20 horses, it costs $40 to bet on every entry to win. If the favorite horse proves fastest, you might lose a few bucks. Don’t follow the crowd with this rookie tactic. The top-rated horse may win, but this only happens about one third of the time, and the payout is the least of the lot. Go with your gut. Rags to Riches took the Belmont Stakes in 2007. Certain riders tend to do well at particular racetracks or in specific race conditions.

9.

8. If you bet and lose a modest amount, you can chalk it up to race-day festivities.

Horse racing jockeys wear brightly colored jackets, called silks, provided by the equines’ owners. What fun is that?

Horse racing is a gamble for all, from riders to owners and trainers and wagering spectators.

The horse with the lowest odds is the most common bet.

Top riders are prime horse racing picks, and for good reason. Skip the popular favorite. If so, those holding winning tickets will leave the track with big grins and bulging pockets.

Once you’ve selected your horse racing pick, here’s what you do. Clamp onto your favorite color. This is considered a sissy bet at best.

Do you have a distant uncle or former boss who knows the owner or trainer of one of the horses? Did a certain pretty or particularly athletic horse pass by in the paddock and catch your eye? Pick the one that interests you personally.. Mine That Bird, despite his odd name, surprised fans by winning that race in 2009. Identify an individual interest. Catch the catchiest name. Look for a long shot. Tell the attendant how much you want to wager, and pass the cash through the window.

10. Hold onto that still-precious paper until official race results are posted. Pick a pedigree you recognize. For those who wish to take horse racing a bit more lightly, here are 10 fun ways to choose your favorite.

This content is copyrighted. Disney fans scored, betting on Animal Kingdom in the Kentucky Derby in 2011.

Each horse is assigned a post position, indicating the spot from which that horse will leave the starting gate.

3. Don’t brag, if you bet on every horse, though. All publication rights reside with the author.

Often, racehorses’ monikers draw fan interest. I’ll Have Another grabbed the Preakness Stakes in 2012. Jump for the jockey you like best. Please feel free to share the http/link, but no cut-and-paste copying or republishing without permission of the National Equestrian Examiner.

March up to the betting window. Looking at the race lineup, can you find a horse whose sire or grandsire has a familiar name? Why not go for good genetics?

6. If you are gaga for green, partial to pink, or totally about turquoise, bet on the horse bearing that hue.

Never reveal your own betting strategy

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Mr. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. 1952-1953).

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Dr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Air Canada

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . It was so unusual at the time . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

The Road to Zero

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca.  

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

False Positive

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.

From a front-line perspective

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

Update note:Dr.

AIDS now had a face.

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Less Than Zero

Omega Man

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Ground Zero

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Louis. 

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

This makes little sense. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Gateway to the West

***

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St.

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India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Live Streaming, India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Match Live Score

By: Lucy Hanes | Dec 9th 2009 – The First T20 Match between India and Sri Lanka is going to happen on 09, December, 2009 at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur. Because of their performance they … Indian cricket team is No.1 cricket team in the ICC Test rankings. They reached the top position after defeating Sri Lanka team by an innings and 24 runs.

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A Beginners Guide To Betting On Greyhound Racing

There are often multiple dogs that are involved in the race and the bets are made on the position that the dogs are going to arrive over the finish line. Many times, these prizes are outlined with the bet that is being made, allowing even beginners to determine the potential prize that is available with the bet that has been made.

The important odds to consider are the first, second and third for most bets that are being made. It is important to realize that the odds given for the race are accurate and the odds makers have years of experience in determining the results of the race and therefore the odds should be considered accordingly.

As one of the most popular types of animal racing in the world, greyhound racing betting has many different types of bets that can be made with many different types of outcomes. Online betting sites with “racebooks” set the greyhound racing betting odds.

The odds are available through the race and are created by the sports books. These odds are going to determine the likelihood of a certain dog coming in a certain place through the race.

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Using these two factors, greyhound racing betting sites will determine the prize that is going to be awarded

10 Websites and Games Like Club Penguin (Virtual Worlds)

If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.

While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).

There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents..

If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource.

This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love.

I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe